Conditions of Prayer

Hehehe... I'm spray painting the top box I bought for my bike over the weekend so while waiting for the paint to dry (literally) before I put on the final clear coat, here's a follow up to the previous post on The Articles of Prayer. These are the five syarat2 sah solat, i.e the conditions for which a prayer is deemed valid. I always get confused between this and the articles of prayer. So the difference is that the articles are the compulsory actions/words/things during prayer whereby the others are those factors OUTSIDE the actual prayer ritual that may deem the prayer invalid if not done. First as a warm up, let's start with upon who praying is compulsory upon:

The compulsory prayer is obligatory for those who meet these three conditions:[1]
  • are Muslim
  • have reached puberty
  • are of sound mind
  • is pure of haid & nifas
Then we get to the five elements that make a prayer valid:[2]
  • Confidence of the time of prayer. Being unsure invalidates even if the time turns out correct.[citation needed]
  • Facing the qibla, with the chest facing the direction of the Ka'ba. The ill are allowed leniency with posture.
  • Covering the awrah
  • Clean clothes, body, place of prostration
  • Pure from hadath (wudu, tayammum, ghusl)
References
1 - Ismail Kamus (1993). Hidup Bertaqwa (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur: At Tafkir Enterprise. ISBN 9-839990-20-9.
2 - Ismail Kamus (1993). Hidup Bertaqwa (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur: At Tafkir Enterprise. ISBN 9-839990-20-9.